TEACHING READING THROUGH GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD
English is one of the languages in the world that master in many various field globally. There are many reasons why getting students to read English text is an important part of teacher’s job. Many students want to be able to read texts in English either for careers, for study purposes or simply for pleasure. Reading is useful for language acquisition provided that students more or less understand what they read, the more they read, the better they get at it. Reading also has a positive effect on students’ vocabulary knowledge, on their spelling and on their writing. As an English teacher we must make decision to choose language teaching method will be most effective. Especially in teaching reading, the writer will propose a case of study that teaching reading through The Grammar Translation Method (GTM) at junior high school. This method is used for the purpose of helping read and appreciate foreign language literature. It is hope that, through the study of the grammar of target language, students will become more familiar with the grammar of native language and will help them speak and write in native language better
1.2.1 How to teach reading through GTM?
1.2.2 How does reading have a positive effect on student’s grammar knowledge?
1.2.3 What are advantages and disadvantages of GTM?
2.1 READING SKILL
2.1.1 Definition of reading
1. Reading is not straightforward process of lifting the words off the page. It is complex process of problem solving in which the reader works to make sense of a text not just from the words and sentences on the page but also from the ideas, memories, and knowledge evoked by those words and sentences.
2. In this view of reading the credit (or blame) for students’ reading ability goes to primary grade teachers, and upper elementary and secondary school teachers at each grade level need teach only new vocabulary and concepts relevant to new content.
2.1.2 Reading is saying the word from the book or something written loudly or silently. Reading has a positive effect on student vocabulary knowledge, on their spelling and on their writing.
2.2 GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD (GTM)
2.2.1 Definition of GTM
The Grammar- Translation method focuses on translating grammatical forms, memorizing vocabulary, learning rules, and studying conjugations. The purpose of using the GTM is to able to read literature written in the target language. The students are given the grammar rules and examples, are told to memorize them, and then are asked to apply the rules to other examples. They also learn grammatical paradigm such as verb conjugations.
Techniques that used in this method are:
- Translation of a literary passage
- Reading comprehension questions
- Deductive application of rule
- Use words in sentences
2.2.1 Principles of GTM
The principles of the GTM are these:
1. Grammar rules are presented and studied explicitly. Grammar is taught deductively and then practiced through translation exercises.
2. The primary skills to be developed are reading and writing
3. Hardly any attention is paid to speaking and listening skills
4. Teacher correction is the only way to make students produce the right forms of the foreign language.
5. The goal of foreign language learning is the ability to understand the texts written in the foreign language
6. Mastering the grammar of the foreign language is essential in order for students to understand the written target language.
7. Vocabulary is learn from bilingual word lists
8. The mother tongue is used as the medium of instruction.
9. A paramount use of translation exercises is given.
2.2.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of TPR
126.96.36.199 Advantages of GTM:
1. When words and phrases are translated into mother tongue, his understanding of those words become very better and quicker.
2. The Grammar-Translation Method develops the art of translation.
3. In this method the child associates foreign words with translated words so strong memory bond is created.
4. The use of mother tongue helps the children in vocabulary getting. It saves time and more effective.
5. The words and phrase are easily learnt and explained if translation method is used.
6. The working knowledge of mother tongue helps them to learn grammar of a foreign language.
7. The principle of “to proceed from known to unknown” is followed.
8. Through this method we can test the ability of comprehension of our students and we can know the form of understanding the subject matter.
9. English grammar can be easily taught by comparing with the grammar of mother tongue.
188.8.131.52 Disadvantages of GTM
1. It is an unnatural method. The natural order of learning a language is listening, speaking, reading, and writing. That is the way a child learns his first language in natural surroundings; but, in the grammar translation method the teaching of the second language starts with the teaching of reading. Thus, the learning process is reversed. This poses problems.
2. Speech is neglected. The grammar translation method places emphasis on reading and writing, neglecting speech.
3. Exact translation is not always possible. A language is the result of various customs, traditions, and modes of behavior of a speech community, and these traditions differ from community to community.
4. It does not give pattern practice. A person can learn a language only when he internalizes its patterns to the extent that they form his habit. But the grammar translation method does not provide any such practice to the learner of a language. It rather attempts to teach language through rules and not by use.
Conversational fluency is not important when it comes to grammar translation. You have to depend on your memory to be able to recall all the rules associated with the grammar of the second language you are trying to learn.
The student who is learning using this technique will be able to read and write in the target language, but the spoken language is not a priority as well as emphasis on listening skills.
After did the research the researcher has some suggestions for the students, english teacher and the institution as follow:
a. The reccommendation as follow the teacher:
b. For students:
J. Patricia, Wentz. The Student Teaching Experience. Merrill Prentice Hall.
Revell Jane. Teaching Technique for Commutative English. London Macmillan:Pres Ltd.
Oxford: Heinemann. Patricia, Richard-Amato, Making it Happened: Interaction in The Second Language Classroom, New York and London: Longman.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Brown Gillian and George Yule, Teaching the Spoken Language: Approach Based on the Analysis of Conversational English. Australia: Cambridge University Press.
Nunan, D. (1993). Action Research In Language Education. In Edge
Setiyadi, Ag. Bambang. 2006. Teaching English As A Foreign Language. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Graha Ilmu.
Brown, H. Douglas. 2002. Language Assessment Principles and Classroom Practice, San Francisco State University: Longman